Teenage Girls Fashion in the 1920s
Clothing and textiles was a class taught to high school girls. I have several text books on the subject which are quite fascinating to read. They describe the history of clothing design, how to choose garments for your body type, what fabrics are good quality, how to clean your clothes, and what an appropriate budget would be. In one book the suggested wardrobe for a high school girl is:
Essential wardrobe items: 1 wool skirt, 1 spring coat, 1 blouse, 1 party dress, 1 kid gloves, 6 handkerchiefs, 1 hiking shoes, 1 sport shoes, 1 rubber boots, 1 pair slippers, 2 pajamas, 2 winter pajamas, 2 combination suits, 2 bloomers, 4 stockings, 1 robe.
Optional clothing: Spring suit, winter coat, jersey dress, flannel dress, 2 blouses, slip- on sweater, winter silk dress, summer silk dress, evening dress, organdy dress, pongee dress, percale or gingham, felt hat, straw hat, gloves, rain slicker and hat, oxford(s), patent leather party shoes, white canvas summer shoes, canvas tennis shoes, bedroom slippers, galoshes, rubbers, slips/pongee, winter pajamas, 2 summer pajamas, combo suits, dark bloomers, light bloomers, undershirts, and ribbed stockings in cotton and wool silk.
Most items were homemade or mail order catalog purchases. As a teen girl grew her mother may have re-purposed some of her own dresses into ones for her daughter. Just like teens today there was a great demand on mothers by their teenagers to dress on trend and always have new things. Often a mother would sacrifice her own wardrobe budget in favor of supplying her daughter with new silk hose instead of practical cotton or a store bought party dress for her graduation.
Teens loved the movies and copied every fashion they saw, scouring over movie magazines, and looking up to older siblings who went off to college and came back as flappers! They were the first to adopt new styles, often against the wishes of parents and strict school policies. They rolled their stockings, bobbed their hair, wore brain-binders (tight ribbon headbands), wore makeup (after leaving the house), and played sports.
In winter they wore rubber overshoes (galoshes. Teens liked to undo the buckles and let them “flap” flap” flap” as they walked. Some history books think this may be an explanation for where the name “flapper” came from.
“Galoshes were exceedingly ugly overshoes that had
about six metal buckles, but we didn’t close them. We spread them as wide as the tongue permitted, and the flaps slapping against each other made the most satisfying swish and jingle with every step!
In search of a more sophisticated look, we began fastening all but the top two buckles. The turned-down top made a cuff that fit neatly around the ankle, while the tongue left upright, made an artistic butterfly in front.” – Katherine Funck, From Flappers to Flivvers
Sports clothing in school was a long white middy blouse with rolled up sleeves, black sailor scarf, black bloomers, black stockings, and rubber sole tennis shoes. Bloomers worn for fashion were made of sateen in blue, red, green or purple. They fastened around the top knee with an elastic band with the extra fabric rolled down over the knee cap and hung a few inches below. This sport uniform had been around for quite a few decades before and some after too. The look was adopted by women too for sport and leisure wear.
Gymnasium was a common high school class of which several girls pursued careers in after high school. Other career aspirations were nursing, secretarial studies, teaching, and stenographer. Many girls were going off to college after high school. Some worked as retail “shop girls” to support their school expenses and also their extensive wardrobe.